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Buckaroo Banzai presents Cracking On the IBMpc. by Independent (IND)

72 of 578 files independent
Part I.
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 ****************************************
 *     B U C K A R O O  B A N Z A I     *
 *         aka the Reset Vector         *
 *                                      *
 *              presents                *
 *                                      *
 *        Cracking On the IBMpc         *
 *               Part I                 *
 *                                      *
 ****************************************
 
 Introduction
 ------------
   For years, I have seen cracking
 tutorials for the APPLE computers, but
 never have I seen one for the PC.  I
 have decided to try to write this series
 to help that pirate move up a level to a
 crackest.
 
   In this part, I will cover what
 happens with INT 13 and how most copy
 protection schemes will use it.  I
 strongly suggest a knowledge of
 Assembler (M/L) and how to use DEBUG.
 These will be an important figure in
 cracking anything.
 
 INT-13 - An overview
 --------------------
   Many copy protection schemes use the
 disk interrupt (INT-13).  INT-13 is
 often use to either try to read in a
 illegaly formated track/sector or to
 write/format a track/sector that has
 been damaged in some way.
   INT-13 is called like any normal
 interupt with the assembler command
 INT 13 (CD 13).  [AH] is used to select
 which command to be used, with most of
 the other registers used for data.
 
 INT-13 Cracking Collage
 -----------------------
   Although, INT-13 is used in almost all
 protection schemes, the easiest to crack
 is the DOS file.  Now the protected
 program might use INT-13 to load some
 other data from a normal track/sector on
 a disk, so it is important to determine
 which tracks/sectors are inportant to
 the protection scheme.  I have found the
 best way to do this is to use
 LOCKSMITH/pc (what, you don't have LS.
 Contact your local pirate for it.)
   Use LS to to analyze the diskette.
 Write down any track/sector that seems
 abnormal.  These track are must likely
 are part of the protection routine.
   Now, we must enter debug. Load in the
 file execute a search for CD 13.  Record
 any address show.  If no address are
 picked up, this mean 1 or 2 things, the
 program is not copy protected (bullshit)
 or that the check is in an other part of
 the program not yet loaded.  The latter
 being a real bitch to find, so I'll
 cover it in part II.  There is another
 choice.  The CD 13 might be hidden in
 self changing code.  Here is what a
 sector of hidden code might look like
 
 -U CS:0000
 1B00:0000 31DB     XOR    BX,BX
 1B00:0002 8EDB     MOV    DS,BX
 1B00:0004 BB0D00   MOV    BX,000D
 1B00:0007 8A07     MOV    AL,[BX]
 1B00:0009 3412     XOR    AL,12
 1B00:000B 8807     MOV    [BX],AL
 1B00:000D DF13            FIST   WORD...
 
   In this section of code, [AL] is set
 to DF at location 1B00:0007.  When you
 XOR DF and 12, you would get a CD(hex)
 for the INT opcode which is placed right
 next to a 13 ie, giving you CD13 or INT-
 13.  This type of code cann't and will
 not be found using debug's [S]earch
 command.
 
 Finding Hidden INT-13s
 ----------------------
   The way I find best to find hidden
 INT-13s, is to use a program called
 PC-WATCH (TRAP13 works well also).  This
 program traps the interrupts and will
 print where they were called from.  Once
 running this, you can just disassemble
 around the address until you find code
 that look like it is setting up the disk
 interupt.
   An other way to decode the INT-13 is
 to use debug's [G]o command.  Just set a
 breakpoint at the address give by
 PC-WATCH (both programs give the return
 address).  Ie, -G CS:000F (see code
 above).  When debug stops, you will have
 encoded not only the INT-13 but anything
 else leading up to it.
 
 What to do once you find INT-13
 -------------------------------
   Once you find the INT-13, the hard
 part for the most part is over.  All
 that is left to do is to fool the
 computer in to thinking the protection
 has been found.  To find out what the
 computer is looking for, examine the
 code right after the INT-13.  Look for
 any branches having to do with the CARRY
 FLAG or any CMP to the AH register.
   If a JNE or JC (etc) occurs, then
 [U]nassembe the address listed with the
 jump.  If it is a CMP then just read on.
   Here you must decide if the program
 was looking for a protected track or
 just a normal track.  If it has a
 CMP AH,0 and it has read in a protected
 track, it can be assumed that it was
 looking to see if the program had
 successfully complete the READ/FORMAT of
 that track and that the disk had been
 copied thus JMPing back to DOS
 (usually).  If this is the case, Just
 NOP the bytes for the CMP and the
 corrisponding JMP.
   If the program just checked for the
 carry flag to be set, and it isn't, then
 the program usually assumes that the
 disk has been copied. Examine the
 following code
 
       INT 13      <-- Read in the Sector
       JC 1B00     <-- Protection found
       INT 19      <-- Reboot
 1B00  (rest of program)
 
   The program carries out the INT and
 find an error (the illegaly formatted
 sector) so the carry flag is set.  The
 computer, at the next instruction, see
 that the carry flag is set and know that
 the protection has not been breached.
 In this case, to fool the computer, just
 change the "JC 1B00" to a "JMP 1B00"
 thus defeating the protection scheme.
 
 
 NOTE: the PROTECTION ROUTINE might be
      found in more than just 1 part of
      the program
 
 Handling EXE files
 ------------------
   As we all know, Debug can read .EXE
 files but cannot write them.  To get
 around this, load and go about cracking
 the program as usual.  When the
 protection scheme has been found and
 tested, record (use the debug [D]ump
 command) to save + & - 10 bytes of the
 code around the INT 13.
   Exit back to dos and rename the file
 to a .ZAP (any extention but .EXE will
 do) and reloading with debug.
   Search the program for the 20+ bytes
 surrounding the code and record the
 address found.  Then just load this
 section and edit it like normal.
   Save the file and exit back to dos.
 Rename it back to the .EXE file and it
 should be cracked.  ***NOTE: Sometimes
 you have to fuck around for a while to
 make it work.
 
 DISK I/O (INT-13)
 -----------------
   This interrupt uses the AH resister to
 select the function to be used.  Here is
 a chart describing the interrupt.
 
 AH=0    Reset Disk
 AH=1    Read the Status of the Disk
         system in to AL
 
     AL          Error
   ----------------------------
     00   - Successful
     01   - Bad command given to INT
    *02   - Address mark not found
     03   - write attempted on write prot
    *04   - request sector not found
     08   - DMA overrun
     09   - attempt to cross DMA boundry
    *10   - bad CRC on disk read
     20   - controller has failed
     40   - seek operation failed
     80   - attachment failed
 (* denotes most used in copy protection)
 AH=2    Read Sectors
 
   input
      DL = Drive number (0-3)
      DH = Head number (0or1)
      CH = Track number
      CL = Sector number
      AL = # of sectors to read
   ES:BX = load address
   output
       AH =error number (see above)
           [Carry Flag Set]
       AL = # of sectors read
 
 AH=3 Write (params. as above)
 AH=4 Verify (params. as above -ES:BX)
 AH=5 Format (params. as above -CL,AL
              ES:BX points to format
              Table)
 
   For more infomation on INT-13 see the
 IBM Techinal Reference Manuals.
 
 Comming Soon
 ------------
   In part II, I will cover CALLs to
 INT-13 and INT-13 that is located in
 diffrents overlays of the program
 
 
 Happy Cracking.....
         Buckaroo Banzai
        <-------+------->
 
 PS: This Phile can be Upload in it's
 unmodified FORM ONLY.
 
 PPS: Any suggestion, corrections,
 comment on this Phile are accepted and
 encouraged.....
 →→ht
 next to a 13 ie, giving you CD13 or INT-
 13.  This type of code cann't and will
 not
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